UNDERSTANDING INSURANCE


One policy can include several types of coverage.

Liability insurance pays for others’ damage and injuries when you cause an accident. Most states require you to carry at least a minimum level of bodily injury and property damage liability coverage. See states minimum car insurance requirements.

The coverage limits are expressed as three numbers. Limits of 25/50/25, for example, would provide up to $25,000 per person injured in an accident, up to $50,000 of coverage for injuries per accident and $25,000 for property damage per accident. Remember, liability insurance pays out to other people; it does not cover you, your passengers or your car.

Personal injury protection (PIP) or medical payments (MedPay) coverage pays the medical bills for you and your passengers after a car accident, regardless of who caused the crash. PIP also covers lost wages and funeral costs. Some states require you to buy PIP or MedPay.

Uninsured motorist (UM) and underinsured motorist (UIM) comes to the rescue if you’re hit by a driver who has no insurance or not enough coverage. UM pays your medical bills if you’re injured in an accident caused by an uninsured driver. UIM kicks in if your medical expenses exceed the other driver’s liability coverage limits. UM and UIM are required in some states.

Uninsured motorist property damage (UMPD) covers your car if an uninsured driver hits you, but the coverage isn’t available in every state. Roughly one in seven drivers is uninsured, according to a 2011 Insurance Research Council report.

Collision coverage pays to repair your own vehicle after a crash. It’s an optional form of coverage, although your car-loan lender might require you to have it. Collision will kick in if you hit a tree, for example. Or, if an uninsured driver hits you and you don’t have UMPD, you could make a collision claim for your car’s repairs. Any collision payment will be reduced by the amount of your collision deductible.

Comprehensive coverage has a misleading name because it applies only to certain circumstances. It pays out if your car is stolen (and not recovered) or damaged by a natural disaster, if you hit an animal or if your car is vandalized. . Like collision, comprehensive is optional, but your lender might require it. Here too, a comprehensive claim payment will be reduced by the amount of your deductible.

Roadside assistance and other extras can come in handy in a pinch. Roadside assistance covers towing and emergency roadside service when your car breaks down. Rental reimbursement pays for a rental car while your car is in the shop after a covered accident. Gap coverage kicks in if the insurer declares your car a total loss, and the payout from the insurance company for the vehicle’s actual cash value is less than the amount you owe on the car loan. See: Save yourself some car insurance grief: Buy gap coverage.